Terrestrial Life at Tun Sakaran Marine Park

Terrestrial Fauna - includes variety of birds, reptiles, insects and small mammals. Birds - Among feathered species recorded are the Pied Imperial Pigeon (Ducula bicolor), the Metallic Pigeon (Columba vitiensis), the Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobaria), the Tabon scrubfowl (Megapodius cumingii), the Collared kingfisher (Todirhamphus Halcyon cloris) and the Pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris). Others are Sea eagles, raptors, thrushes, flycatchers, sunbirds and bulbuls were also recorded.

Mammals - The commonest large mammal is the Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) which occur in mangrove and forest areas. The Bearded pig (Sus barbatus), the Sambhur deer (cervus unicolor) and Mouse deer (Tragulus) and Otter (Lutra sp) were also sharing their lives on this islands.

Reptiles - There is only snakes and lizards were common. Five species of terrestrial snake are exists namely, Green vine snake (Ahetula prasina), Dog-toothed cat snake (Boiga cynodon) and Pit vipers (Trimeresurus spp., reticulted Python (Phyton reticulatus) together with six species of sea snake. Sea krait (Laticauda colubrina) are common around the jetty on Boheydulang, while the other species occur offshore. Skinks and lizards, including the common wtaer monitor lizards occur on the main islands. The most conspicious of the lizards is the Large tokay (Gekko-gekko).

Insects - Butterflies (Lepidoptera) were particularly well represented, with a total of 52 species and about 5% of the Borneo fauna. While, Beetles (Coleoptera), sucking insects of herbacous plants (Hemiptera and Homoptera) and stinging insects (Hymenoptera) are also fairly common.


By virtue of their position at the extreme south-western and of the Sulu volcanic arc, the TSMP have interesting plant communities not found in other regions in Sabah or Borneo. The five main vegetation communities are present on the islands.

Coastal Mixed Forest - This is the richest plant community found on the islands, represented by at least 95 species of tree found in 63 plant families. There are only three species of dipterocarps namely Shorea guiso, Hopea beccariana and H. sangal which can reach 30-40 m tall. Although, the smaller trees included individuals of Antirhea edanoi, growing to about 5 m tall, a new record for Borneo and previously known only from Tawi-Tawi, Philipines.

Scrub Vegetation - A scrub-like community is well developed on the two main islands, forming on the top of the major rock outcrops, on near-horizontal or gently sloping surfaces. The most distinctive life forms apart from a few dominant tree species in this scrub community include the yucca-like Cycad (Dracaena multiflora) commonly growing to 10 m tall and a new record for the Bornean flora, previously documented only for the Philipnes, palm-like Cycas rumphii and the Cactus-like succulent (Euphorbia lacei).

Rockface Vegetation - The vegetation on rockfaces includes small patches of scrub, established on narrow ledges and in broad cracks, as well as a distinctive community that includes the true lithophytes (rock plants). Selaginella tamariscina, a small plant only 4-5 cm high, growing on exposed to partially shaded gently sloping rockfaces on both Bodgaya and Boheydulang. Cheilanthes javensis is the small brown fern that grows in completely open conditions, forming thick tussocks in cracks and depressions on the rock face. Both are the new species record for Borneo (and Malaysia).

Beach Vegetation - The typical sandy shore elements include a range of plants, but typical shore elements on the TSMP sandy beaches such as Pandanus odoratissimus, Pandanus dubius and Ipomoea pes-caprace were exceedingly rare. Other beach elements are Casuarina equisetifolia, Argusia argentata and Barringtonia asiatica. But a new genus and species record for Borneo of a slender climber are Rhyssopteris timoriensis.