Flora & Fauna of Kinabalu

Kinabalu is a hot spot of plant biodiversities. It is estimated between 5,000 to 6,000 vascular plant are found in this park. These plants which comprise of 200 families and 1000 genera made up 14 percent of the flora in the Malesia phytogeographical region or about 2.5 percent of the flora of the Earth.

  • 711 documented species of orchids
  • 621 species of ferns
  • 27 species of Rhododendrons
  • 9 species of Nepenthaceae
  • 78 species of figs
  • 6 species of bamboo
  • 45 species of wild gingers
  • 81 species of palms
  • 2 species of Rafflesia
  • Unaccountable number of fungi, mosses, liverworth and lichens.


Wildlife ranges from mammals, birds, fishes, amphibians and reptiles to insects and other invertebrates. Some montane mammals such as pygmy squirrels and fruit bats are almost endemic to Kinabalu Park. Others like Thomas' Pygmy-squirrels, Black Shrews and Kinabalu Shrews are found nowhere else.

Of 29 bird species unique to Borneo, at least 17 are confined to the mountains, notably Kinabalu. These include subspecies of the Red breasted Tree-partridge and the Crimson-headed Wood-partridge. A common sight on the summit is the Mountain Blackbird. Kinabalu is home to over half of Borneo's 518 bird species, including Rhinoceros Hornbills.

Over 1,000 moth varieties, numerous small reptiles, insects and spiders are endemic to Kinabalu. Of the 900 known butterfly species in Borneo, some 600 are found here. Diversity - with over 100 species of mammals alone - does not guarantee sightings. Many animals are nocturnal or tree top dwellers. The most obvious are tree shrews and squirrels, of which 28 species are noted. Primates include Orang Utans, Borneon Gibbons, Leaf Monkeys, and two distinctive nocturnal species, the Slow loris and the Tarsier.